- Silica Fume — Provides reduced permeability, increased compressive and flexural strength, increased resistance to alkali and chemical attack, improved resistance to water washout, reduced rebound levels, and allows for thicker single pass applications;
- Air-Entraining Admixtures — Improve pumpability and adhesion in wet-process shotcrete and freeze-thaw durability in both wet and dry processes;
- Fibers — Control cracking, increase toughness values, improve impact resistance and energy absorption; and
- Accelerators — Improve placement characteristics in adverse conditions, allow for thicker single pass applications, increase production capabilities, and reduce the occurrence of fallouts on structures subjected to vibration.
Methods of Application HCM Shotcrete